What Is Arduino ?

Arduino is a physical programming platform consisting of an I/O card and a development environment that includes an application of Processing/Wiring. The hardware of the Arduino cards includes an Atmel AVR microcontroller (such as ATmega328, ATmega2560, ATmega32u4) and the necessary side elements for connection to programming and other circuits. Each Arduino card has at least one 5-volt regulator and a 16MHz crystal oscillator (some have a ceramic resonator). There is no need for an external programmer for programming on Arduino cards, because a bootloader program is written to the microcontroller on the card.


Genuino is the sister brand of Arduino. The co-founders of Arduino, Massimo Banzi, were founded by David Cuartielles, Tom Igoe, and David Mellis. It is a brand used for Arduino products sold outside the United States. There are Genuino Uno, Genuino 101, Genuino Mega 2560, Genuino Zero and Genuino Micro cards. The only difference between these cards and the Arduino versions is the difference in the brand name. The components and features of the cards are the same as the Arduino version of each.


What's in the article ?

Arduino Components

Arduino development environment (IDE), Arduino bootloader (Optiboot), Arduino libraries, AVRDude (Arduino microcontroller programming software) and compiler (AVR-GCC) consists of. Arduino software consists of a development environment (IDE) and libraries. The IDE is written in Java and is based on the environment of the language Processing. The libraries are written in C and C ++ and the AVR-GCC and AVR Libc. compiled with. The Arduino source code is available here.


The Optiboot component is the bootloader component of Arduino. This component is the component that enables the programming of the microcontroller on the Arduino cards. Arduino is the most important component that allows Arduino to be preferred so that it is possible for everyone to do programming without requiring detailed information about the microcontroller. A list of Arduino libraries is available here. Arduino libraries come with the development environment and are located under the “libraries” folder. By reviewing the code you can see how the microcontrollers are programmed and the structure of the libraries. Finally, the AVRDude component is used to program compiled codes.


What Can You Do With Arduino ?

You can easily program with Arduino libraries. You can handle taking analog and digital signals. Using the signals from the sensors, you can design robots and systems that interact with the perimeter. You can create reactions like movement, sound, light to the outside world specific to the project you designed. Arduino has a variety of cards and modules designed to provide solutions to different needs. You can develop your projects using these cards and modules.


How to Use Arduino

Despite all these advantageous features, Arduino is not a tool that can make all your projects quickly with zero electronic and software knowledge. You should learn about electronics and software together with Arduino to avoid clogging after a certain place using ready-made libraries and samples.


You cannot use the 100% performance of the Atmega microcontrollers on Arduino cards as a result of the convenience of Arduino cards. Before you start working with Arduino, it is useful to learn basic information about Arduino. Then you should choose the Arduino card (Arduino Uno, Arduino Mega 250, Arduino Leonardo … etc) which is suitable for you. All Arduino cards can be programmed in the same way, but different cards have different features and functions. For example, two frequently preferred Arduino cards, Arduino Uno and Arduino Mega;

After you pick and choose the appropriate Arduino card, you need some kind of computer, USB cable, various resistors, LEDs, buttons, breadboard, connection and jumpers, various sensors, LCDs. You can download and use Firtzing free of charge to draw the circuits you will prepare for your Arduino projects. The following figure shows some of the components in Fritzing. Fritzing program is for drawing your projects. There is no simulation feature yet.


After these basic steps, what you do with Arduino depends on your design and application skills and your work. By examining the application examples, you can start to design and implement your own projects step by step, starting from simple.


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